Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Social, Cultural & Environmental Risks in Business ... let's see if we can clarify that definition. 9Although findings have not always been consistent, levels of safety, violence, and other social environmental features have also been found to be associated with walking and physical activity (Foster and Giles-Corti, 2008). The official provider of online tutoring and homework help to the Department of Defense. Research in the 1990s demonstrated that people of low socioeconomic status were more likely to experience residential segregation in the United States than in some European countries (Sellers, 1999). Although many of the data reviewed in this chapter are highly suggestive of an important role for environmental factors, more empirical evidence is needed to draw definitive conclusions. The physical environment can be virtually anything concrete that children may encounter in their lives. The environment can affect health through physical exposures, such as air pollution (OECD, 2012b). This reinforcement creates a vicious cycle in which the environment contributes to the development of social norms (such as reliance of automobile transportation) and the behavior resulting from the norm reinforces the environmental features (such as absence of bicycle lanes or public transportation) that sustain it. The social environment has been equated with his culture and writers like Graham … One theory for the tendency of some immigrant groups to have better health outcomes than might be expected on the basis of their incomes and education (see Chapter 6) is the social support immigrants often provide one another (Matthews et al., 2010). We have noted that there exist variations over the surface of the earth in its physical as well as cultural environment. 13Even in these countries, however, automobile use is rising quickly. The dominant land use and development pattern espoused in the United States for decades (Richardson and Bae, 2004) has created dependence on private automobile transportation, with important implications for traffic volume and associated traffic injuries and fatalities (Transportation Research Board, 2009). gender and culture, physical and social environment, personal health practices and coping skills, and availability of health services. This chapter, like others before it, focuses on three questions: •   Do environmental factors matter to health? Social environments may also operate. 1Although analytically distinct, physical and social environments may also influence and reinforce each other: for example, physical features related to walkability may contribute to social norms regarding walking, which may in turn promote more walkable urban designs and community planning. © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. View our suggested citation for this chapter. Class 8 Social Studies on Map Reading and interpretation.Learn how to identify Features on a map, The climatic conditions of the area as well as measure distance, area and tell the direction. Perceptions and stereotypes about area reputation, local demand for products and services, and the purchasing power of residents may also influence the location of health-relevant resources. Search for Other Answers. et al., 2008).15 In addition, there is evidence that food access is more inequitably distributed in the United States than in other high-income countries (Beaulac et al., 2009; Franco et al., 2008; Moore and Diez Roux, 2006), which may create problems of food access for vulnerable populations. et al., 2011) that influence health outcomes. A digital library supporting Digital Pedagogy at School and Homeschooling at home. An important difficulty in comparing results across countries is that the proxy measure for the local food environment is often the type of food stores or restaurants available (such as supermarkets or fast food outlets), but the extent to which these typologies reflect relevant differences in the foods actually available to consumers may differ significantly across countries. A proper and adequate In particular, particles that are less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (“fine” particles) are thought to pose the largest health risks (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2007). Environmental factors that affect physical activity (primarily through their effect on active life-styles, including walking) and access to healthy foods (rather than calorie-dense foods) may help explain differences in obesity and related conditions between the United States and other high-income countries. Weather Wet Season: The wet season starts early April and lasts till October. This characteristic has promoted dispersed automobile-dependent development patterns (Transportation Research Board, 2009) with consequences for population density, land use mix, and walkability (Richardson, 2004), all of which may have health implications. One recent review found that access to open space (parks and other green spaces) in neighborhoods was associated with physical activity levels in both the United States and Australia (Pearce and Maddison, 2011). ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. Understanding the reasons for the spatial patterns of health within countries may shed light on environmental factors that may contribute to differences across countries. ... Studies have shown that built environments that were expressly designed to improve physical activity are linked to higher rates of physical activity, which in turn, positively affects health. At least two studies have suggested that spatial variation in health-related resources may have very different distributions in the United States than in other countries. The factors in the physical environment that are important to health include harmful substances, such as air pollution or proximity to toxic sites (the focus of classic environmental epidemiology); access to various health-related resources (e.g., healthy or unhealthy foods, recreational resources, medical care); and community design and the “built environment” (e.g., land use mix, street connectivity, transportation systems). This is believed to occur by way of a variety of direct and indirect impacts on specific aspects of growth and development as well contributing to molding the sense of self. Although no studies have collected the necessary data to determine directly the contribution of the environment to the U.S. health disadvantage, existing evidence on the health effects of environmental factors and on differences in levels and distributions of environmental factors between the United States and other high-income countries suggest that environmental factors could be important contributors to the U.S. health disadvantage. In contrast with traditional environmental health approaches that focus primarily on toxic substances in air, water, and soil, this more recent approach conceptualizes the environment more broadly to encompass a range of human-made physical and social features that are affected by public policy (Frumkin, 2005). Many of the environmental factors relevant to health are directly amenable to policy. In social studies, history, and geography, and all the subjects in Canadian and world studies, students Help with Questions in Social Studies. There are fewer data to compare rates of other crimes across countries. Types of environment The Social Environment Cardinal Points Governing our Community Characteristics of a community The family community The school community The Coat- of - Arms The … Saved from google.co.in. Scheme of work for Social Studies for Junior secondary school one (1) first term covers the following topics and sub-topics; Meaning, Scope and Nature of Social Studies, Objectives & Importance of Social Studies., Physical Environment: Meaning, Types and Features, Resources in Our Environment and their Uses, Environmental Problem, Causes, Effects and Solutions, Social Environment: Meaning … Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name. Neighborhood conditions can create stress (Cutrona et al., 2006; Do et al., 2011; Merkin et al., 2009), which have biological consequences (see Chapter 6). Esoma.Ke Home; Kids Learning; ... Every map has symbols which represent physical and man-made features on a map. evidence is more limited to compare these countries in terms of social cohesion, social capital, or social participation. Importantly, these various features of the physical environment may act synergistically, reinforcing their effects and creating an “obesogenic” environment that affects all U.S. residents, at least to some extent. Social studies are a subject that deals with the study of. Kissock an American in 1981 who worked in Nigeria in the 1920’s defined social studies as “a programme of Workplaces have also long been recognized as important determinants of health and health inequalities, occupational safety, and access to preventive services (Anderson et al., 2009; Schulte et al., 2011). Large geographic disparities in toxic exposures to environmental hazards and in healthy food access have been repeatedly noted in U.S. communities (Diez Roux and Mair, 2010; Mohai et al., 2009; Pastor et al., 2005). Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. It ist essentially the study of human group experiences. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter. Environmental factors also operate over a person’s life course, so that the environments one experiences early in life may influence health trajectories over time. One available measure is the concentration of particulate matter less than 10 micrometers in diameter (PM-10):12 in the United States, the concentration of PM-10 levels is 19.4 micrograms per cubic meter, lower than the OECD average of 22 micrograms per cubic meter (OECD, 2012a). The identification of causal effects using these aggregate summaries raises a number of methodological challenges and does not allow one to identify the specific environmental attributes that may be relevant. Passnownow.com digitally democratizes access to education content for Nigerian Students and Teachers. Environments that discourage physical activity may also limit social interactions, with potential implications for violence and drug use. Residential segregation by income and race have also been linked to drug use (Cooper et al., 2007) and HIV/AIDS risk (Poundstone et al., 2004), other contributors to the U.S. health disadvantage. 8Analytical complexities make the isolation of these effects difficult in observational studies. Unfortunately, the study was not designed to identify the specific environmental features responsible for the observed effect. You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Across countries, studies have also shown that physical activity by children is associated with features of the built environment, including walking-related features, and physical activity resources (Bringolf-Isler et al., 2010; Davison and Lawson, 2006; Galvez et al., 2010; Sallis and Glanz, 2006).5, Although more definitive evidence is needed (see Feng et al., 2010), it has been hypothesized that these environmental features may contribute to the obesity epidemic (Galvez et al., 2010; Papas et al., 2007; Sallis and Glanz, 2009). The forces of environment begin to influence the growth and development of the individual right from the womb of the mother. Older people who live in areas with high A network of social relationships is an important source of support and appears to be an important influence on health behaviors. The student is expected to: (3)(4) Geography. For example, the density of alcohol retail outlets has been linked to alcohol-related health complications (Campbell et al., 2009; Popova et al., 2009), including injury and violence (Cunradi et al., 2012; Toomey et al., 2012). worksheet on physical features of india. The effects of particulate matter on mortality appear to be consistent across countries. It is plausible to hypothesize that factors in the built environment related to low-density land development and high reliance on automobile transportation; environmental factors related to the wide availability, distribution, and marketing of unhealthy foods; and residential segregation by income and race (with its social and economic correlates) may be important contributors to the U.S. health disadvantage in many domains. There is scant literature comparing social and physical environmental features across countries. A New Zealand study found that area deprivation was not always consistently associated with lack of community resources (including recreational amenities, shopping, educational and health facilities) (Pearce et al., 2007). Military Families. Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. QUESTION 2: ARE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS WORSE IN THE UNITED STATES THAN IN OTHER HIGH-INCOME COUNTRIES? The contribution of environmental factors to the U.S. health disadvantage is likely to result from dynamic and reinforcing relationships between environmental and individual-level factors. Important areas for future cross-national research on environmental factors and health include (1) characterizing levels and distributions of environmental risk factors using comparable measures across countries; (2) documenting inequalities in the distribution of these environmental factors; (3) identifying the extent to which these environmental factors affect health and the extent to which their effects are modulated by individual-, community-, or country-level factors; (4) examining directly the contribution of environmental factors to health differences between the United States and other high-income countries; and (5) studying national, regional, and local country policies that may curb levels of adverse environmental exposures, reduce the extent to which they are inequitably distributed, or buffer their effects. Legislative policies in other countries limit circulation and ownership of firearms by civilians. Similar geographic disparities may exist for other environmental features. In addition, these environmental effects may contribute to the development of social norms regarding behaviors and weight (Christakis and Fowler, 2007), which then reinforce certain features of the physical environment, making them increasingly difficult to modify. A range of other physical environmental features have been linked to other health outcomes. The term environment has been derived from a French word “Environia” means to surround. It is noteworthy that these environmental factors may interact with other factors at both “higher” levels of broad social policy and “lower” levels that operate at the individual level. Features of social environments that may operate as stressors (including perceptions of safety and social disorder) have been linked to mental health, as have factors that could buffer the adverse effects of stress (e.g., social cohesion, social capital) (DeSilva et al., 2005; Mair et al., 2008). The social environment, social context, sociocultural context or milieu refers to the immediate physical and social setting in which people live or in which something happens or develops. In many ways, the environment can be thought of as the mid- or “meso-” level of influence linking macrolevel factors (e.g., economic and social policy) and microlevel processes (e.g., individual behavior). It includes the culture that the individual was educated or lives in, and the people and institutions with whom they interact. Factors in the social environment that are important to health include those related to safety, violence, and social disorder in general, and more specific factors related to the type, quality, and stability of social connections, including social participation, social cohesion, social capital, and the collective efficacy of the neighborhood (or work) environment (Ahern and Galea, 2011).6 Social participation and integration in the immediate social environment (e.g., school, work, neighborhood) appear to be important to both mental and physical health (DeSilva et al., 2005). For example, cross-national comparisons show that levels of active transportation, such as walking or cycling, can be effectively modified by specific land use and transportation policies (Pucher and Dijkstra, 2003; Pucher et al., 2010b). Do you enjoy reading reports from the Academies online for free? Resilience to the adverse health effects of stress has also been tied to factors that could influence how one perceives a situation (threat versus challenge) and how one responds to stressors (Harrell et al., 2011; Hennessy et al., 2009; Matthews and Gallo, 2011; Ziersch et al., 2011). Levels of residential segregation shape environmental differences across neighborhoods (Reardon and Bischoff, 2011; Subramanian et al., 2005). Transportation behavior also differs between the United States and other high-income countries, with U.S. residents walking and cycling substantially less than Europeans (Bassett et al., 2008; Buehler et al., 2011; Hallal et al., 2012). Physical environment means the natural and man made features of an area. This figure is one of the lowest in the OECD (2012a). Environmental factors, broadly defined, may also contribute to at least part of the U.S. health disadvantage in homicide, violence, and drug-related deaths. These economic, social, urban or rural, transportation, and other policies that affect the environment were not traditionally thought of as relevant to health policy but are now attracting greater attention because decision makers are beginning to recognize their health implications (Cole and Fielding, 2007). Dietary options on cafeteria menus and in vending machines, opportunities for physical activity, and health education curricula are all important to children’s health. Sort by: BrainPOP Social Studies Free movies, games, activities, and more for students interested in social studies. Characteristics of communities that foster distrust among neighbors, such as neglected properties and criminal activity, can affect both the cohesiveness of neighbors as well as the frequency of poor health outcomes (Center on Human Needs, 2012b). 14Trust data are based on the question: “Generally speaking would you say that most people can be trusted or that you need to be very careful in dealing with people?” Data come from two different surveys: the European Social Survey (2008 wave 4) for OECD European countries and the International Social Survey Programme (2007 wave) for non-OECD Europe (OECD, 2011e). Ready to take your reading offline? 7 Residential segregation (and its many social and physical correlates) may be another environmental factor that affects multiple, seemingly unrelated health domains in which the United States has a health disadvantage. 4. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. Research has identified specific physiologic mechanisms by which these exposures affect inflammatory, autonomic, and vascular processes (Brook et al., 2010; Tzivian, 2011). Work on the “transmission” of obesity through social networks has highlighted the possible importance of social norms in shaping many health-related behaviors (Christakis and Fowler, 2007; Hruschka et al., 2011; Kawachi and Berkman, 2000).8 A long tradition of sociological research links these social features not only to illness, but also to risks of violence (Morenoff et al., 2001; Sampson et al., 1997). All units of the second course emphasize the process of development whereby man, coping with given conditions in his physical environment, develops established ways of dealing with the … In social studies free movies, games, activities, and social environment can also be important for segments. 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